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Code: E3572014**490
First author: PENG Shanchi
First author's unit: state key laboratory of palaeobiology and stratigraphy, nanjing institute of geology and palaeontology, chinese academy of sciences
Other author:
Published year: 2014
Roll: 21
Issue: 2
Page: 8-26
About the Journal
Title: Earth Science Frontiers
Subject: Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Founded: 1994
ISSN: 1005-2321
CN: 11-3370/P
Long Abstract

All scientific researches and geological practices on Earth’s history, interrelated geological process, and synchronous geological events can hardly do without either stratigraphic principles or the precisely defined chronostratigraphic framework and geochronologic scales. The stratigraphic subdivision and precise correlation between different regions and farcies in the world can also hardly do without standard and easily applicable frameworks of strata. It is easily understood that as a basic science, how important roles the chronostratigraphy plays in geosciences. The core of chronostratigraphy is the developing global chronostratigraphy scheme, i. e. the International Chronostratographic Chart. All the chronostratigraphical units of Phanerozoic Eonothem and some of Proterozoic Eonothem in this chart have been defined or will be defined by the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Points (GSSPs or “Golden Spikes”). This is the only way to develop a successive hierarchical scheme of chronostratigraphic (geochronologic) divisions with no gaps and no overlaps. During over 100 years prior to the introduction of the concept on GSSP, a majority of chronostratigraphic (geochronologic) units in the current stratigraphic charts had been erected and accepted widely by countries all round the world. However, in lacking a well defined and unambiguous concept, extreme confusions had been occurred commonly. The efforts promoted and pursued actively by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) during last five decades with erecting 65 GSSPs in the world are reviewed. For 12 years, the Working Group on the boundary of Silurian–Devonian systems, which was under the leadership of ICS, defined formally the boundary in 1972 and originated the principle defining the base of a chronostratigraphic unit with ‘boundary stratotype’. Thanks to the full advocacy and continuous improvement by ICS, this principle has been widely agreed. As a result, the concept of the GSSP has been formed and guidelines for establishing GSSP have been issued by ICS with emphasizing the base of a global chronostratigraphic unit can be only defined with boundary stratotype. In addition, the ICS has set procedures for submitting and voting GSSP proposals. The historic efforts and significant achievements made by Chinese geologists in the study of GSSPs are also reviewed. Starting in 1977, searching for GSSP in China had almost one decade behind other countries. During the first two decades afterward, China experienced twice setbacks in the competitions for the Cambrian and Ordovician GSSPs. One more setback occurred in the early years of this century, when China was defeated in the competitions for the GSSP of Ediacaran System and for the formal name of the system, which was previously called as provisional Neoproterozoic III System. Ever tried and ever failed, but no matter for the Chinese geologists, and finally they succeeded in 1997 by establishing the GSSP for the base Darriwilian Stage in Changshan County, Zhejiang Province, known as the first GSSP for China as well as for the Ordovician System. During the succeeding 14 years, Chinese geologists erected nine more GSSPs in Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangxi, and Hubei provinces, which include the GSSP for Triassic Induan Stage, GSSPs for Permian Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian stages, GSSP for Carboniferous Visean Stage, GSSPs for Ordovician Hirnatian and Dapingian stages, and GSSPs for the Cambrian Paibian, Guzhangian and Jiangshanian stages, making China ranked the first in the world since 2011 with holding 10 GSSPs. Meanwhile, the Chinese geologists also established eight formal global chronostratigraphic units named after Chinese geographic localities, which include the Furongian and Lepingian series, the Guzhangian, Paibian, Jiangshanian, Dapingian, Wuchiapingian and Changhsingian stages. These achievements show Chinese geologists are important contributors to the International Chronostratographic Chart. Key words: Global Standard Stratotype-section and Points (GSSP); “Golden Spike”; chronostratigraphy; boundary stratotype

彭善池_图2 中国确立的“金钉子”(红色方框)在《国际年代地层表》(2013中文版)中的地层位置(截止2013年8月30日;据文献[37]修改)
图2 中国确立的“金钉子”(红色方框)在《国际年代地层表》(2013中文版)中的地层位置(截止2013年8月30日;据文献[37]修改)
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